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Thread: Theory of social progress.

  1. #1
    Join Date
    Mar 2012

    Theory of social progress.

    First of all, I was guided by my theory of interrelation between the conflict and control under creation of my theory of social progress. And also I was guided by the theory of biological evolution of Charles Darwin. This theory of Darwin has become for me a sample for imitation under creation of my theory of social progress. Besides, I have drawn conclusions from errors of a utopia of Marx about communism and failures of Marxist experiment in Russia. The negative result of Marxist experiment in Russia is too result for me. The conflict and control is major human relations in society. Progress of society leads to the invention everything new and new types of the conflict and control.
    According to the theory of biological evolution of Darwin, four factors of evolution operate in the biosphere:
    • heredity,
    • variability,
    • fight for existence,
    • natural selection of the most adapted.
    The essence of the theory of Darwin is expressed in the following provisions:
    • There is a huge scope of individual variability of signs within one species. There are no two absolutely identical individuals.
    • All live organisms possess ability to fast reproduction. If there was no destruction, that posterity of one pair quickly would cover all Earth.
    • Vital resources are limited, therefore there is a fight for existence, for a place under the sun (for life and possibility to have posterity) between individuals of one species and between individuals of different species or against an environment.
    • The strongest most adapted individuals survive in this fight; those individuals have deviations who appeared favorable in these conditions of environment casually. Deviations in the hereditary device arise casually as though God plays dice. Descendants of the survived individual inherit a useful deviation and descendants appear more adapted for these conditions of environment.
    • The survival and primary reproduction of the adapted individuals and death of unadapted individuals is a natural selection.
    • Natural selection of separate individuals of one species in different conditions of environment leads to a divergence of signs and to arising of new species.
    The main thought of social Darwinism consists in the following, that mechanism of social evolution doesn't differ from the mechanism of biological evolution, therefore strongest man survives in society only. Thus, heredity, the variability, natural selection and fight for existence are factors of evolution both in society, and in the biosphere.
    The idea of evolution with help of natural selection soared in air in the 19th century. I am going to lift for a board and to develop this idea in 21 centuries to idea of social progress. For the first time the idea of social evolution through about natural selection was formulated by T. Malthus. In his opinion, systems of the help to poor people are inefficient. Ch. Darwin and A. R. Wallace had formulated the idea about fight for a survival after reading the book of Malthus. The theory of Darwin made stunning success in biology. Representatives of social Darwinism solved by a method of analogy to apply principles of biological evolution to society and by that to repeat scientific success of Darwin. T. Malthus, G. Spencer, J. A. Gobineau, H. S. Chamberlain, L. Voltman, J. V. de Lapuzh, F. Galton, L. Gumplovich. G. are representatives of social Darwinism
    Spencer considered that the Universe, society, social institutes and the person undergo evolution under the law of a survival of the strongest. People and the organizations should develop, relying on own forces only, weak people and the organizations should be lost or «to leave from a scene». These ideas were very close to the American colonists on Wild West where not managed to adapt man perished simply. J. A. de Gobineau considered that death of all civilizations comes because of impossibility to keep purity of race long time. J. A. de Gobineau considered that ethnic mixes lead to degeneration of the person. J. A. de Gobineau considered that there is an inevitable hierarchy of races.
    The cousin of Darwin F. Galton had based a new science – eugenics, as a science about selection of mankind with help of artificial selection. That to deduce the clever human race, it need to create material incentives for encouragement of marriage and acquisition by children of those who will undergo procedure of intellectual testing successfully. By the way, these IQ tests are put today into practice widely, despite bad glory of social Darwinism.
    Anthropologist J. V. de Lapuzh considered that the most valuable racial type is the blond dolichocephalic person, thus, signs of the highest race are a blond hair and a "long" skull. This second sign was decided with help of the head index as the relations of the greatest width of a skull to the greatest length. The width and length of a skull were decided with help of special compasses. The concept of the head index was entered by the Swedish anatomist A. Rettsius in the 40th of 19 century. O. Ammon had carried out a number of anthropological researches among recruits and students. Sometimes the facts contradicted this hypothesis, and some geniuses appeared "round-headed" – Brahicephalic persons, then Ammon was compelled to write down them in false Brahicephalic persons. L. Gumplovich considered that unit of social selection is not the personality, but an ethnic group or a social class. Gumplovich considered that the state is the organization of domination of minority over the majority that the state resulted from fight between hordes. These ideas found application in fascist Germany where «racial hygiene» found an embodiment in examination on thoroughbredness, in violent sterilization and destruction "defective" men in concentration camps and gas chambers.
    Nazis had plausible scientific justification of the monstrous experiments. But results of nazi experiments terrified the whole world. My purpose is to disown from false Nazi theories, terrible Nazi experiments and to revive true social Darwinism. Otherwise the groundless criticism of social Darwinism splashes out the child together with water.
    It need begin my criticism of social Darwinism with that attempt to explain social evolution by means of natural selection was correct, but the social conflict differs from the biological conflict a little.
    There are three types of the social conflict:
    • Fight for survival (for possibility to keep life and to avoid death) and for possibility to have posterity.
    • The conflict for the status of the controller.
    • The conflict for a sphere of influence.
    Darwin noticed truly that there is a fight of only the first type in the biosphere. The conflict of the second and third type is applied is widespread in society. Though fight of the first type is applied in society, as a last resort. Destruction lost men is allowed in the war partially. The loser can commit suicide or be lost as a result of the use of drugs, toxins or alcohol-containing substitutes sometimes. There is a transition from prevalence of distribution of fight of the first type to prevalence of distribution of the conflicts of the second and third types in the course of human history. Representatives of racial-anthropological school didn’t see these differences. Representatives of racial-anthropological school considered that there is a fight of only the first type in society, as well as in the biosphere. Therefore attempt of representatives of racial-anthropological school to apply the theory of Darwin to society terminated in failure. For these reasons representatives of racial - anthropological school gave incorrect forecasts and incorrect recipes of development of society.
    The mechanism of social evolution differs from the mechanism of biological evolution on the following signs:
    • The conflict occurs more often in society not for possibility to keep life, but the conflict for the status of the controller, conflict for a sphere of influence and for resources therefore lost man doesn't perish usually, and lost man becomes object of control usually.
    • Development occurs through steps – formations in society, and there are periods of prevalence of any species in the biosphere, for example, prevalence of dinosaurs or mammals. A unit of selection is civilizations in society, and a unit of selection is species in the biosphere. If it is possible to express essence of any species as a set of information put in genes of representatives of this species and a set of physiological signs, that it is possible to express essence of any civilization as a set of social inventions which are applied under construction of social structure of this civilization. For example, the social structure of the Russian society has development at the expense of assimilation of such western social inventions, as the market competition, a private property and representative democracy as a result of Yeltsin's reforms. Creation of system of the global world won't cancel, and, on the contrary, will aggravate this global rivalry between civilizations when leading civilizations will replace each other much more often, for example, rates of development of South East Asia advance rates of development of Western Europe and the USA today.
    • If the strongest, most adapted organism wins in the biosphere, that person wins in society who is armed with the most effective tools.
    • Speed of social progress is higher approximately in one thousand times than speed of biological evolution. Life on Earth arose about 4 billion years ago, and society arose 40-30 thousand years ago. Therefore, if Darwin formulated the theory of social evolution, I want to formulate the theory of social progress. Just speed of development distinguishes a rapid progress from slow evolution.
    • If the generator of changes is a mechanism of genetic variability in the biosphere, that the generator of changes is creative abilities of human reason in society.
    H. Chamberlain and L. Voltman were representatives of racial-anthropological school in sociology. The main mistake of representatives for racial - anthropological school consisted that her representatives called, actually, for creation of privileges for the "highest" race and to creation of an caste’s system. These privileges limit course of the conflicts that results, on the one hand, to social stagnation, falling of competitiveness and growth of dependant moods among oligarchs. On the other hand, establishment of an caste’s system leads to switching off of lifts of social mobility when born governors from bottoms can't make legal career and are compelled to arrange a social revolution for the purpose of physical destruction of oligarchs. The caste’s system is constructed on "powder keg" always, on the insuperable conflict between "upstarts" and "degenerates". Representatives of racial - anthropological school suggested to construct world supremacy of the German nation, and Hitler tried to realize this utopia, but Hitler had suffered full breakdown. Hitler constructed tyranny and totalitarianism which are more backward form of government and more backward political regime, in comparison with representative democracy. Nazi and eugenical experiments on removal of the highest race by means of artificial selection contradict humanity and democracy principles. Nazis tried to organize physical destruction of Jews and Roma in practice. About 6 million Jews were lost as a result of Nazi experiment. Hitler's attempt to construct in practice a utopia about world supremacy of the German nation and to begin the Second World War led to death about 55 million people, among them of 27,5 million Russians. Crash of fascist experiment had showed that the attempt to arrange artificial selection for people is doomed to a failure. Mankind builds the global world today where there is an inevitable resettlement and mixture of representatives of various nationalities and races. There cannot be a place for policy of «racial hygiene» - politicians of artificial selection of people and the nations by means of violent sterilization and destruction of people in concentration camps in the global world. The nationalism of the advanced nations was crushed as a result of the Second World War, but the world is threatened much more by nationalism of the backward nations today. Any empire, for example the Roman Empire, Alexander the Great empire, Russia or the USA, arises by means of gains and any empire represents a national copper where the nations mix up. Propagation of nationalism in such multinational countries as Russia and the USA, can lead to civil war, and it is the worst.
    The system is a sum of elements and communications between them.
    Development of system is a complication or simplification of system.
    Progress is a complication of system, emergence of new communications and elements in system.
    Regress is a simplification of system, disappearance of communications and elements from system.
    Thus, progress and regress is two opposite types of development. The example of regress is a structure of the Soviet society in comparison with Russia at Provisional government of a sample from March to October, 1917. Such social inventions as a private property (economic control), the market competition, a multi-party system, parliament, division of the authorities, free elections and political freedoms, a ban on the state censorship were cancelled. Bolsheviks tried to cancel such social inventions, as money, religious control and a family even, but Bolsheviks failed.
    Conclusion: society develops progressively as a whole. This axiom is proved by the huge sum of the facts of progressive development of instruments of labor, functions of thinking, emergence all of new and new groups and the organizations, types of the social conflicts and types of the social control, growth of scientific knowledge new public formations, as steps of development of society.
    The social conflict is a type of social interaction at which participants try to win a victory over the opponents with help of various means with the purpose of physical destruction of the opponent, his transformation into object of control or a gain of another's sphere of influence and resources.
    Social control is a type of social interaction at which the controller forces of object for control to performance of norms by means of threat of application of positive or negative sanctions, by means of introduction of stereotypes.
    Thus, there are two statuses – the controller and object of control in the relations of social control.
    The sanction is an award or punishment, thus, sanctions happen positive or negative.
    Norms are rules of behavior.
    The stereotype is a sample for imitation which takes root into consciousness of people through mass media and cultures.
    The essence of interrelation between the social conflict and control consists in the following. On the one hand, the winner in the conflict becomes by controller before the following flash of the conflict, and looser becomes by object of the control, looser is compelled to be lost or concede a sphere of influence to the winner. On the other hand, the controller is compelled to support an optimum level of severity of sanctions of social control as too strict or too soft level of severity causes to new flash of the conflict because the object of control starts to doubt in ability of the controller to carry out the functions in this case. The object of control goes on the conflict to the controller in case of too severe control because of feeling of despair and the object of control decides to risk by own life, achievements in career or a salary for the sake of liberation from too severe control. The object of control receives hope of a victory over the controller in case of too soft control as the object of control starts to consider that controller is too weak and incapable to apply punishments. For example, pupils arrange lesson failure in case of tyrannical or weak style of establishing order at a lesson from the teacher.
    The essence of my theory of social progress consists in the following. There are three factors of social progress by analogy with the theory of biological evolution of Darwin:
    • The conflict for the status of the controller.
    • Control of the winner of standards of behavior of the won.
    • Natural selection of applicants in controllers as a result of this conflict.
    Conclusion: The relations of the conflict and control serve as basic elements for creation of social systems. Progress society as a result of the conflicts leads to emergence everything new and new types of the conflict and control and to complication of social system. The conflicts cause the necessity of the invention all of new and new means of fight and the control devices, new types of the conflict and control. Control in society allows to keep, increase and extend among the backward people these inventions.
    It is possible to track interrelation of the theory of Darwin with my theory:
    • Fight for existence in the biosphere is similar to fight for the status of the controller in society.
    • Natural selection in the biosphere is similar to selection of controllers in society.
    First of all, war, the market competition, ideological and religious fight, esthetic competition are the most important types of the conflict which cause progress of society and emergence of new technical inventions. It is possible to consider 2 World War as an example of a rapid progress in the sphere of the invention of new types of weapon. USSR advanced Germany in development of tanks at the beginning of this war. The Soviet average tanks T 34 and the heavy tanks KV surpassed German average tanks T 3 and T 4. Germans invented and applied under the Kursk arch in 1943 heavy Tiger tanks and average Panther tanks that to overcome this backlog in tanks. In reply Russian invented the heavy tanks IS. Germans invented FAU rockets to bomb London at the end of 2 World War. Americans invented and applied a nuclear bomb at the end of this war that to force to the knees Japan. The market competition matters for society progress even bigger today, than war. Market competition leads to economic blossoming in the countries of South East Asia (China, Japan, South Korea and so on) and to economic decline in the USA and the countries of the European Union today. Just there was a crash and disintegration of the Soviet Union because of defeat in the economic competition to the West. The American Hollywood dominates in the world in the sphere of cinema today and Hollywood imposes to other countries the American standards and values of capitalism in the sphere of culture.
    The countries which have lost in the war are compelled to become colonies of more advanced winner countries and the countries which have lost in the war are compelled to enter new social inventions under control of these winners. Germany and Japan were compelled to enter representative democracy instead of tyranny and hereditary monarchy after defeat in 1945.
    Russia was compelled to enter voluntary representative democracy, a private property and the market competition instead of tyranny, communistic oligarchy, state ownership, economic planning in 1991 and 1993 after defeat in “Cold war” (in race of arms) and in the market competition with the West. This defeat in the market competition with the West and race of arms caused to hunger, emergence of commodity deficiencies and big economic problems in the USSR. The leadership of Russia led by president Yeltsin was compelled to discharge from the power of communists and to carry out these political and economic reforms that to solve these economic problems.
    The social utopia is a false theory, which calls to regress of social structure, to violent cancellation of great social inventions. The social utopia is a fairy tale for adults. Utopians suggested to cancel the various social organizations and forms of the social conflict and control – the government, the state, bureaucracy, law enforcement agencies, army, a private property, religion and church, a family, and also war and the market. These organizations, types of the social conflict and control represent "skeleton" of social structure. If to cancel these elements and communications, the social structure will fall before foundation simply. Progress of human society consisted in that the mankind invented and built to each new element of this social structure with great difficulty. Each new element carries out the specific function in society. Cancellation of this element leads to that there is nobody to carry out this function, why there comes to social illness. If Bolsheviks cancelled money, a private property and the market competition almost in 1917, that full ruin and hunger came in Russia as a result of these erroneous actions. Cancellation of a private property leads to disappearance of economic stimuluses to work. Cancellation of the market competition within the country leads to emergence of deficiencies, hunger, decrease in quality of let-out production of a domestic production, defeat of the domestic industry in the world market, to disappearance of possibilities for export of a domestic production, self-isolation and backwardness of domestic economy. Full economic equality can't be in principle as it destroys in a root stimuluses to work. It is possible to do a conclusion that it is impossible to cancel any type of the social conflict and control in society. Any similar attempt encounters natural resistance of the people, common sense of which doesn't allow to believe in dangerous social utopias therefore utopians try to apply violence with purpose to force people to build a utopia. Examples of utopians: Plato, Thomas More, Tommaso Campanella, Gerrard Winstanley, Jean Meslier, Gabriel Bonnot de Mably, Etienne-Gabriel Morelly, Gracchus Babeuf, Henri de Saint-Simon, Charles Fourier,Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Robert Owen, Carl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Nikolay Chernyshevsky, etc. They were self-denying people often, but they were fanatics of utopian idea. Many of these utopians promised to relieve by workers from oppression, that is from social control. But to cancel social control in society it is not obviously possible in principle.
    Communistic experiment was complete in Russia in 1991. It need do conclusions from this experiment:
    • Marx's first forecast: a ban of wars, establishment of the democratic world between the people.
    Result: Bolshevist Russia became an aggressor and a source of terrorist threat often.
    Conclusion: the absolute prohibition of wars is an unrealizable utopia.
    • Marx's second forecast: the socialism should win around the world.
    Result: Socialism affair is lost almost everywhere today.
    • Marx's third forecast: the market, exploitation of the person by the person, a private property on means of production should die off.
    Result: Economic crash of socialism.
    • Marx's fourth forecast: there should be a religion dying off as, according to communists, the religion is opium for the people.
    Result: Crash of all attempts to forbid a religion. A big share of priests appeared in GULAG where many of them were lost. The most part of church values was plundered by the Soviet power. Many temples were blown up or profaned by order of the authorities. It was possible to undermine belief in God at a considerable part of the population, it led to growth of number of suicides, divorces, abortions, a crime rate, blossoming of household alcoholism.
    • Fifth forecast: a ban of bourgeois culture and ideology which, allegedly, justify exploitation of the person by the person.
    Result: Creation of the ideological machine on deception of own people, establishment of censorship. Talented cultural figures were compelled to emigrate, sent abroad, appeared in prison, were finished to suicide or vegetated in obscurity, but mediocre timeservers let out the works in huge circulations. Thus, disappearance of competition among the Soviet art workers led to the general degradation of quality of the works of art created by them.
    • Sixth forecast: dictatorship of the proletariat with the subsequent dying off of the state.
    Result: An arbitrariness of the authorities and the state terror against own people. Deliberate unbinding of civil fratricidal war. Ban of opposition parties and execution of their members. Elections turned into the farce gradually. The state became tyrannical, and then oligarchic instead of state’s dying off. The state security agencies could operate contrary to the law. The beginning of Bolshevist terror became one of the reasons of Civil war.
    • Marx's seventh forecast: creation of classless society.
    Result: classless society (communism) remained an unrealizable utopia, but destruction of representatives of the nobility, the clergy, rich peasants, Cossacks, businessmen, confiscation of property and the state robbery became reality.
    Conclusion: while there will be a division of social activities while society will be constructed on the social conflict and social control, until then classless society remains an unrealizable utopia.
    Conclusions from communistic experiment:
    To simplify social structure it is not obviously possible in principle. The religion, a private property, the market competition, the state, laws, money, a principle of division of the authorities, democracy, a multi-party system, the constitution, art competition, scientific discussion, penal system, army, law enforcement agencies, social control and the social conflict is great social inventions which never "will die off" and this inventions can't be cancelled without damage for society and this inventions can't be cancelled without just resistance of the population to efforts of "utopians". Self-isolation of the utopian state leads to economic crash inevitably.
    There are eight types of the social conflict and eight similar types of social control:
    1. Psychological conflict. 1. Psychological control.
    2. Moral conflict. 2. Moral control.
    3. Armed conflict. 3. The armed control.
    4. Administrative conflict. 4. Administrative control.
    5. Religious conflict. 5. Religious control.
    6. Economic conflict. 6. Economic control.
    7. Esthetic conflict. 7. Esthetic control.
    8. Ideological conflict. 8. Ideological control.
    Moral, armed, administrative, economic and religious types of control are constructed on the mechanism of threat of sanctions. Esthetic and ideological types of control are constructed on the mechanism of introduction of stereotypes.
    Five corresponding types of sanctions are applied in five types of control:
    • Moral sanctions – a praise or abuse.
    • The armed sanctions – corporal punishments.
    • Administrative sanctions – increase or demotion, providing work or dismissal.
    • Religious sanctions – threat of eternal torments in a hell or eternal pleasure in paradise, the promise of rewards and punishments in process of regeneration of souls.
    • Economic sanctions – a prize or a fine.
    Types of the social conflict and social control were invented not at the same time, but in turn in the course of social progress, in the course of history of human society. Translation of norms and threat of sanctions in the course of psychological control and psychological conflict is carried out not by means of words, but in a sign language often. The mankind inherited these primitive types of the psychological conflict and psychological control from animal ancestors.
    It is possible to give the following examples of each type of the conflict:
    • Examples of the psychological conflict is a mutual intimidation in a sign language, examination in the course of flirtation of that fact who is a leader in the love relations, competition of demagogues for influence on crowd.
    • The example of the moral conflict is a quarrel between people in the course of fight for the status of the leader in small group.
    • Examples of armed conflict is a hunting for wild animals, a war between the states, a civil war, a war between criminal groups and a war criminal group against the police, a armed capture of the power or political murder, extremist terror, a duel or sports competitions.
    • Examples of the administrative conflict are elections, the conflict of bureaucratic cliques or a strike of workers. The clique is a group or gang of adherents which aspires to discharge by means of various mean methods from office members of other cliques and to advance members of own clique on an administrative office ladder. There are three types of elections: direct elections on people's assembly, elections in exclusive meeting, national multi-party elections. The election system in people's assembly was brought to perfection in Ancient Greek Athens, the election system in the exclusive Senate was brought to perfection in Ancient Greek Sparta and in Ancient Rome, the system of national elections was brought to perfection in England and the USA as a result of movement of chartist and feminists. Chartists had achieved by vote for workers, and the feminists had achieved by vote for women.
    • The example of the religious conflict is a religious competition between the church and sectarian organizations for a sphere of influence on believers within observance of the freedom of worship invented in the USA.
    • The example of the economic conflict is the market competition in the conditions of which that producer survives who can make and sell the goods at the smallest price and with the best quality. The market relations were invented by Phoenicians and Ancient Greeks in Athens. Sea trade and the sea ships, gold money, craft production of the goods on sale and a private property on means of production were invented in Phoenicia and Ancient Greece, but they used slaves as worker force. The market was cancelled in the Middle Ages in Western Europe and the subsistence economy was restored as the center of a civilization moved from the Mediterranean Sea to the European continent, and trade on overland roads was complicated because of feudal dissociation. Market competition were restored in Western Europe during New Time on a new basis – ocean trade and the ocean ships (caravels), hired labor and mechanical production were invented in addition to old signs of the market. Ocean trade and caravels were invented in Portugal and Spain.
    • The example of the esthetic conflict is a competition between art workers which was invented in Ancient Athens. The theater too was invented in Athens.
    • The example of the ideological conflict is a dispute or discussion between scientists, between politicians or between mass media. Formal logic (a science about laws of the correct thinking) and rhetoric (a science about eloquence) were invented in Ancient Greece. Aristotle had invented formal logic.
    It is possible to give the following examples for each type of control:
    • The hypnotist, the demagogue, able to influence to crowd, the "fatal" person, able to inspire unrequited love to own person (“fatal love”) in side of the representative of an opposite sex is by examples of controllers in the course of psychological control.
    • The example of moral control is a control of the leader in small group by means of such sanctions, as a praise or abuse in the conditions of moral support of the leader from the majority of members of this group.
    • The example of the armed control is a control in a farm against home’s animals, control in criminal group, in any total organization – soldier’s barracks, a clinic for deranged men, prison, a slaveholding economy, concentration camp for prisoners of war where there are such sanctions, as corporal punishments. The authorities turn system of criminal law into system of the state terror and intimidation of citizens at such form of government as tyranny.
    • Example of administrative control is a control in vassal system, in any bureaucratic organization – in tax service, army, church, police, an education system, system of the state health care, state sector in economy, a socialist command management system, ministerial system of executive power where there are such sanctions, as dismissal or employment, increase or demotion. Administrative control was invented together with invention of bureaucracy in Ancient Egypt and the states of Mesopotamia.
    • The example of religious control is a control of "prophet" in charismatic sect and control of the priest over believers by means of such sanctions, as threats of eternal torments in a hell or promises of eternal pleasure in paradise, promises of advantages in the course of reincarnation. Religious control was invented in such world religions, as Christianity, Islam and the Buddhism. The mechanism of religious control was invented in period of a decline for the Roman Empire.
    • Example of economic control is a control at private enterprise, control of the international banks and state regulation of the market by means of such sanctions, as a prize or a fine. Today this type of control is the most effective. Economic control was invented during New Time in England and the Netherlands. The international banks try to control policy of the whole countries economically. The system of state regulation of domestic market uses such economic levers as privileges on the credits, taxes and duties.
    • The example of esthetic control is a control by means of introduction of esthetic stereotypes – attractive images.
    • The example of ideological control is a control by means of introduction of ideological stereotypes with help of repeated repetition of norm. Political and trading advertizing serves as an example of esthetic and ideological control. Mass media and culture are newspapers, cinema, radio, television, a platform, video/ This mass media were invented in Western Europe and the USA during New time/ This mass media had allowed to construct system of ideological and esthetic control. The state ideological machinery was constructed with aim of deception and misinformation of citizens in interests of the authorities at communistic and fascist tyranny even. There is a freedom of press in the conditions of the western democracy that to secure citizens against this danger, that is competition system between private mass media. Under which the television company which provides false, uninteresting or out-of-date information, will be compelled to be ruined.
    My forecast: further progress of human society should lead to the invention of new types of the conflict and control.
    The main difference of groups from the organizations consists in the form of social control which is applied at their construction. Small groups are constructed, mainly, on moral control. Only criminal and, partly, teenage groups are constructed on the armed control. The organizations can't be constructed on moral control in principle. Charismatic groups are a transitional step from group to the organization. Charismatic groups are constructed on religious control. The total organizations are constructed on the armed control. The bureaucracy is constructed on administrative control. The private firm is constructed on economic control.
    Examples of the total organizations are soldier’s barracks, ship team, prison, a military college, concentration camp, a monastery, hospitals for blind, elderly, deranged, poor men. Examples of the bureaucratic organizations is a school, executive power, tax service, church, law enforcement agencies, professional army, the ministry. Max Weber allocated seven traits of bureaucracy, In my opinion, it is possible to add two more to them:
    • Observance of rules of the schedule is constructed on application threat from the direct head to its subordinated administrative punishments – increases or demotions.
    • Employees conduct among themselves fight of cliques for the power in the organization behind the scenes. For example, there is a conflict of cliques at school. Thus, the bureaucracy is the hierarchical organization constructed on administrative control and fight of cliques for the power behind the scenes.

  2. #2
    Join Date
    Mar 2012
    There are eleven main groups and the organizations in society which were invented in turn in the course of history:
    • Family. It has function of production of healthy posterity. The family was invented in period of origin of primitive society. The family, a kin and a tribe are constructed on moral control. Wars flashed between tribes often.
    • Production organization. Its function is production of the vital benefits – food, clothes, houses and so on. The cattle breeding and agriculture were the first modes of production historically and then a craft and mechanical production had arisen. The most effective at that time forms of control in the production organization, for example, moral control were applied at primitive society, armed control were applied at slaveholding society, administrative control were applied at feudalism, economic control were applied under capitalism.
    • Army. It was invented in period a decline of primitive society (under period of military democracy). Army has function to be at war, that is to protect borders of the national territory from an aggressor and to win another's territory. The army was constructed originally on moral control, then - on the armed control, and then - on administrative control.
    • Law enforcement agencies – court, police, prison. They were invented under slaveholding society. Their function is maintenance of a public order, that is implementation of the armed control of the government over citizens, implementation of system of criminal law. Later law enforcement agencies began to apply administrative and economic sanctions except corporal punishments. Law enforcement agencies are constructed on administrative control of the head over the employees. The prison is constructed on the armed control when guards have the right to apply corporal punishments against prisoners. The police is at war against the criminal organizations. The criminal organizations are a reserve center of the power which amplifies in case of temporary weakening of police and legitimate authority of the government. The criminal organizations are at war with each other.
    • Bureaucracy. It has function to collect taxes and to direct by public works sometimes, that is to build channels, dams and so on. Economic function of bureaucracy is the extremely inefficient form of use of labor in comparison with the system of private business constructed on economic control. Writing and the cadastre (the book of taxpayers) were invented for implementation of taxation in Ancient Egypt.
    • Government. It has function to control activity of army, bureaucracy and law enforcement agencies administratively. Government controls an education system and church sometimes. Theocracy, on the contrary, means the form of government at which the church controls the government. The government is constructed on administrative control. Supreme power consists today in the conditions of representative democracy of three branches – legislative, executive and judicial which are independent from each other.
    • Church and sects. They have function to console fear of believers before death and to convince them in necessity of existence of system of social control, in necessity of humility to controllers. Church as the religious organization, was constructed in the Buddhism, Christianity and Islam for the first time. Church applied corporal punishments against the opponents – heretics sometimes. Church organized religious wars and crusades against competitors sometimes. The church arose in period decline of slaveholding society.
    • Education system. It has function of training (socialization) of younger generation. The education system arose under slaveholding society.
    • Health system. It has function of treatment of people. The first doctors appeared under slaveholding society. The medical organizations are constructed on administrative control.
    • Art, mass media and cultures. They has function to satisfy esthetic requirement and to inform people, to carry out socialization. Mass media and cultures are in a condition of competition with each other. Correspondents enter to polemic with each other during fight for a sphere of influence on readers and the audience. Separate mass media and cultures, for example, the separate newspaper or a television channel, are constructed on economic or administrative control of the head over the employees. Mass media and cultures were invented under capitalism.
    • Science. It has function of knowledge of truth, production of inventions and forecasts. The science was invented under slaveholding society. Scientists compete with each other during scientific discussions.
    Conclusion: progress of society leads to emergence everything the new and new organizations with the corresponding new functions.
    The statics is a social structure or anatomy of a social organism for this historical moment, as system of the organizations which remind organs in body.
    Dynamics is a description of sequence of stages for development of structure for a social organism, that is emergence all of the new and new organizations and groups.
    These concepts (a statics and dynamics) were entered by August Comte.
    In opinion of representatives to organic school in the academic sociology, society is similar to a human body therefore society has requirements. Each social organization or group reminds any organ of society and satisfies any requirement, carries out any function.
    Society is progressively developing system of groups and the organizations which is constructed on the conflict and control relations between people.
    Ludwig von Bertalanffy created the theory of open systems in biology, and then he tried to create the general theory of systems, but this plan wasn't executed up to the end. Examples of open systems are a water tower, a biological organism and society. Open system is a system which has an entrance and an exit, open system exchanges with environment substance and energy and supports internal balance. In my opinion, society is open system which has an entrance and an exit and supports internal balance. Nature serves as environment for society. It is possible to allocate minerals and natural resources on an entrance in society. It is possible to allocate various production wastes on an exit from society. Violation of internal balance occurs because of the various reasons – because of a lack of resources on an entrance, because of excessive growth of the population, because of sharp change of environment – change of climate, an ecological situation and global problems. Violation of balance leads to hunger, revolution, civil war when people kill each other for a piece of bread. Violation of balance leads to wars between the states in a pursuit for disappearing resources. Under the law A. Toynbee's about a challenge and answer, a cause of infringement of balance is a challenge for society, on which the elite should find the answer, that is elite should solve a problem with deficiency of resources on an entrance. Restriction of birth rate occurs or a natural way as a result of hunger, epidemics and wars or by means of artificial ways, for example, by means of a tax on the second child as in modern China.
    Formations are steps of development of society.
    The main thought of a formational approach consists that development of society goes through steps – through formations. Marx listed four formations in work «To criticism of political economy»:
    • antique,
    • Asian,
    • feudal,
    • capitalist.
    Scientific discussion was on this matter in 1928-1935 in the USSR, as a result of I. Stalin had summed up this discussion and Stalin called five formations:
    • primitive-communal,
    • slaveholding,
    • feudal,
    • capitalist,
    • communistic.
    According to Stalin socialism is the first phase of communism. Stalin forced to forget about an Asian formation, as Asian formation reminded a socialism very much. It turns out so that there is constructed the same society in the USSR, as in Ancient Egypt therefore the socialism is a regress. The subject «Asian formation» became a taboo subject in the Soviet philosophy. K. Wittfogel wrote on this subject in the West in work «East despotism: comparative research of the total power". R. Aron had mentioned Asiatic formation in work «Democracy and totalitarianism». Reason of incompleteness of discussions about formations till today consists that philosophers couldn't find the correct criterion which distinguishes one formation from another. According to Marx, such criterion is the level of development of productive forces, but this criterion is too abstract, unsuitable for comparison of formations therefore one researchers distinguished four formations, and others researchers distinguished five formations, one researchers considered an Asian formation distinct from others formations, and other researchers didn't consider such. In my opinion, the type of control in the economy sphere is such criterion:
    • Primitive formation is constructed on moral control in the economy sphere.
    • Slaveholding formation is constructed on armed control in the economy sphere.
    • Feudal formation is constructed on administrative control in the economy sphere.
    • Capitalist formation is constructed on economic control in the economy sphere.
    Marx didn't invent a new type of control for communism and Marx considered even that all forms of social control will be cancelled under communism, but such forecast has appeared by a utopia as society can't exist without the relations of the social conflict and social control. Communists did attempts to use in economy under a socialism ideological stimuluses – flags, the pendants, badges of the Drummer of communistic work, a medal of the Hero of socialist work, article in the newspaper, glorifying drummers, the photo on the Honor desk, certificates of honor. Miner Alexey Stakhanov became the first drummer. But this campaign ended with a total failure as workers don't want to work for flags, workers want to work for money. Such sanctions influenced on people under a socialism really, as corporal punishments in the sphere of prison labor in GULAG, threat of the death penalty for "wreckers" and administrative sanctions in the sphere of free work. Corporal punishments is a sign of a slaveholding society in the sphere of economy, and administrative stimuluses are a sign of feudalism therefore the socialism was an Asian version of feudalism where there is big on the size a public sector of slaveholding economy.
    Thus, in my opinion, there were four formations in the history of society:
    • primitive,
    • slaveholding,
    • feudal,
    • capitalist.
    The Asian formation was invented in Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, later similar societies arose in Ancient India, Ancient China, Mexico, Peru, Byzantium and imperial Russia. "Asian" and despotic character of imperial Russia, according to Vittfogel, is dictated by an external factor - the Tatar-Mongolian gain. Bolshevist revolution cleared away the road to total Asian state of the USSR nine months later after falling of the Asian state created by tsarism. Vittfogel saw in imperial Russia the traits, typical for "east despotisms" - a rural community and bureaucracy absolutely accurately.
    In my opinion, men invented irrigation agriculture and cattle breeding in Asia, men constructed in Asia enormous irrigational systems and other global objects - pyramids in Egypt, city walls in Mesopotamia, the Chinese wall in China. These enormous objects became archaeological monuments and often useless way of waste of human energy which had no real advantage. Men invented in Asia the state slavery, bureaucracy, taxes, hieroglyphic writing, a despotism, regular army, court, law enforcement agencies, the code of laws, state ownership on the earth, a temple economy and an economy of the Pharaoh. The bureaucracy had functions of taxation and the management of building of global objects. The despotism or, in other words, tyranny had benefit in the countries of the Ancient East as only the despot could force to repair irrigational systems every year and by that to prevent hunger. The Asian formation became an Asian version of a slaveholding society which gradually turned into an Asian version of the feudalism, but Asian formation had bright difference from such West slaveholding society and feudalism as lack of a private property on means of production in Asia.
    Men had invented in Ancient Greece representative democracy and the aristocracy, the military ship – a triyer, the market, sport, theatre’s, competition, a private property on the earth and slaves. There were in the West only a serfdom and vassal system, constructed on administrative control. Exactly in the West capitalism was invented. Capitalism was brought on bayonets of the West European colonialists to Asia.
    Conclusion: in my opinion, Vittfogel was right partly only in question about reasons of emergence of a despotism in the various countries. Vittfogel concentrated own attention only to one reason of emergence of a despotism (need to build irrigational systems in the conditions of irrigation agriculture) and Vittfogel didn't see other reasons. In my opinion, the main reason of emergence of a despotism are extreme external and internal conditions of living society. Threat of external aggression, the big territory and imperial state system can be such conditions There is a need of suppression of separatist revolts in imperial state. There aren’t irrigation agriculture in Russia, but there were threats of external aggression from side of numerous aggressive neighbors for Russia always. Russia possessed the big territory always and there was a need to suppress revolt of separatists in Russia always. It is not casually that Russia chose today the most rigid model of democracy – the presidential republic, otherwise civil war could begin against separatists in Russia or Russia could lose war on the international scene.
    Russia occupies median place between Europe and Asia therefore Russia invented nothing herself almost, and Russia borrowed social inventions alternately that of Europe, of Asia. In general, there are very few countries which could to make at least one social invention.
    The list of "teachers" for Russia:
    • Vikings became the first teachers for east Slavs. Vikings were from the West, from Sweden. Vikings had brought to Russia the princely power, trade on the rivers, the weapon and a military system, laws, collecting a tribute.
    • Byzantium was the second teacher for Russia. Byzantium occupied median place between Europe and Asia too. Russia had borrowed the Christianity, writing, architecture from Byzantium.
    • Tatar-Mongol and the Golden Horde from Asia were the third teacher for Russia. Golden Horde had taught to Russian men to collect taxes from each house and to build despotism, as a result the absolute monarchy were established in the Moscow principality where the throne was handed down to the eldest son or the big brother.
    • Western Europe (at first Poland, then Sweden, Holland, England, Germany, France became the fourth teacher for Russia in 17 century, and under Russian emperor Peter 1 especially. Russia was at war alternately with some of these countries and Russia studied at them). Russia borrowed from Western Europe three English inventions - technical inventions, the market and economic control. Russian emperor Nicolay 2 tried under pressing of liberals and revolutionaries to enter the fourth English invention - to construct system of representative democracy, Nicolay 2 entered parliament and multi-party elections, but Nicolay 2 couldn't complete this form of government – Nicolay 2 didn't enter the constitution and parliament control over the government.
    There was a failure in social construction as a result of October revolution of 1917. Bolsheviks destroyed a capitalist system and constructed a primitive Asian formation by an example of Ancient Egypt.
    Four campaigns for construction of an Asian formation were carried out by Bolsheviks:
    • Military communism. Lenin cancelled a private property on the earth and plants, economic control in economy, the market, unfinished representative democracy; he tried to cancel even money, religion and the code of laws vainly. This campaign caused to Civil war in Russia, but Bolsheviks could win in Civil war though Bolsheviks had to go on temporary concessions to peasants in the form of New Economic Policy.
    • Industrialization. Bolsheviks had organized big buildings of plants of heavy and war industry, channels and the railways. The agriculture robbery, gratuitous work of prisoners, coercion to purchase of bonds of the state loan, vodka sale became sources of financing of these buildings.
    • Collectivization. Bolsheviks tired out peasants in collective farms violently and Bolsheviks forced to peasants to work in collective farms almost free of charge – for "ticks" in the magazine of workdays. Peasants ate and paid heavy taxes from a kitchen garden. Rich peasants were plundered and subjected to repression. As a result peasants have not stimuluses to work completely, and the agricultural branch came to a condition of complete decline.
    • Cultural revolution or big terror or «big cleaning». Lenin constructed oligarchy where oligarchs were called by "Lenin guard». Fight of fractions began for the power within this «Lenin guard» in the 20th years 20 century. Stalin won in turn the paralyzed Lenin, Trotsky's fraction, Zinoviev’s and Kamenev's fraction, Bukharin’s, Rykov's and Tomsky’s fraction. Stalin destroyed physically almost all «Lenin guard» in 1937-1938 and Stalin had constructed tyranny. Stalin had created instead of «Lenin guard» a new ruling layer – the nomenclature which was rigidly subordinated to the tyrant. Thus, Asian formation was completed and represented a classical sample under Stalin.
    Khrushchev had destroyed physically the new applicant in tyrants – Beria and Khrushchev had restored oligarchy with what gradual dismantle began of an Asian formation in Russia. Yeltsin had destroyed oligarchy and an Asian formation in Russia completely, Yeltsin had constructed capitalism and system of representative democracy on the western samples.
    The Asian formation was constructed and in other countries of socialist camp where these four campaigns were carried out on the Soviet sample too. As soon as the Soviet armies were disengaged from countries of Eastern Europe in 1989, there were "velvet" revolutions and capitalism was restored. The Asian formation in China was constructed by Mao Tse Tung who won civil war and carried out such campaigns, as «big jump», national communes and a cultural revolution. Policy of the New Economic Policy is carried out in China today, but the power is in hands of communistic oligarchy, and students who demanded democracy on Tiananmen Square, were crushed by tanks. The Asian formation remains today in Northern Korea and in Cuba.
    The conclusion consists that the socialism is regress in comparison with capitalism, and this grandiose communistic experiment led to big victims in Russia. Bolsheviks couldn't find the Russian way of development of the country and Bolsheviks had moved Russia to a backward Asian way. Communists aren't able to build today anything, except this primitive model of society. Repetition of similar utopian experiment becomes for Russia catastrophe.
    There are three main ideas of a civilizational approach:
    • Each local civilization has a unique originality. Each local civilization differ from each other on systems of values, customs, culture, production technology, the morals and philosophy.
    • Each local civilization endures the periods of the birth, blossoming, decline and death. Such is a cycle of life of a civilization.
    • These local civilizations exist nearby with each other, replace each other and fight against each other.
    Researchers allocate some local civilizations: Ancient Egypt, civilization of Babylon and Assyria, Ancient China, Ancient India, antique civilization of Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome, civilization of Ancient America, Muslim civilization of the Arab Caliphate and Ottoman Empire, West European civilization. There is a discussion about composition of this list of civilizations. The reason of this discussion consists that researchers didn't find yet criterion which distinguishes one civilization from another. In my opinion, such criterion is the list of the great social inventions made by these civilization. For example, my big doubts are caused by attempt to consider Russia a separate civilization. Despite the Russian patriotism, it is difficult to find the fact in the history of Russia of the great social inventions made by Russian which were included into gold fund of mankind. Russia, as well as the majority of the countries of the world, didn't invent, but Russia studied at other civilizations. It would be desirable to repeat once again that Russia is a transitional country from Asia to Europe, like Byzantium. The civilization is the society constructed on a certain set of great social inventions. One civilization differs from other civilization a set of these inventions.
    The essence of the Toynbee's law of a challenge and answer consists in the following: environment offers civilizations a challenge, the elite should find the answer. If there aren’t the answer or answer is inadequate, that civilization perishes. If the elite could find the right answer, this civilization conquers and teaches neighbors to this great invention.
    Examples of successful answers of civilizations:
    • Hunters of Sahara. Process of a drying up of the Africa-Asian steppe began after the termination of ice period. There was a Sahara Desert on a place of corpulent pastures. Process of a drying up is a challenge for ancient people. Some tribes of hunters and collectors died out simply. Other tribes made two great answers: nomadic cattle breeding and irrigation agriculture. Nomads based a nomadic civilization and Nomads began to drive the herds from one oasis to another skillfully. Ancestors of Egyptians and Schumer could dry up bogs in valleys of Rivers Nile, Tiger and Euphrates, they based river civilizations, Egyptians and Schumer had constructed grandiose drainage and irrigating systems, using not iron, but only stone and wooden instruments of labor.
    • The Andean civilization had arisen in the uplands territory. The challenge for ancestors of Incas is a small territory of the earth suitable for agriculture in mountains, severe climate and low fertility of the earth. The answer is a terrace agriculture.
    • Minoan civilization. The island of Crete was the center of this civilization. This civilization had arisen from challenge of sea. The Minoan civilization was lost as a result of a volcanic eruption in 1 600 year BC. Phoenicians lived in mountains on the seashore and Phoenicians had not enough earth suitable for agriculture. The answer of Phoenicians is the invention of the sea ships, sea trade and the alphabet. The bronze weapon, products from glass and purple cloth became the Phoenician goods. Phoenicians were forced out from maritime routes by their pupils – ancient Greeks. The last colony of Phoenicians – Carthago - was destroyed by Ancient Rome and the Phoenician civilization was lost.
    • The challenge for an antique civilization of Ancient Greece is a small fertility of stony soils. There were three attempts to make the answer to this challenge. The answer of Sparta consisted that it is necessary to win nearby lands in Messeny, to turn conquered inhabitants into the state slaves and to force them to work for Spartans. Sparta was compelled to create regular army for performance of this task, but Spartans had no craft and trade, Spartans were backward in all areas, except war. The answer of Corinth and Colchis consisted that it is necessary to base overseas colonies in Sicily, the Southern Italy and Thrace where there was a lot of fertile earth and to import bread from there. But the most successful and effective answer was made by Athens. Athens borrowed the invention at Phoenicians – sea trade and craft, and Athens bought bread on the obtained money simply. Athens had surpassed the Phoenician teachers that Athens had invented the first military ship, instead of the trading ship – to a triyer. Athens had invented the new goods – the iron weapon, grape wine, olive oil, silver jewelry, ceramics and so on. Invasion of Persians to Greece caused Alexander the Great successful campaign. Ancient Rome invented mobile creation of infantry in answer to invasion of Gauls, then Romans invented the Roman code of laws.
    • Continuous invasions of nomads became challenge for Russia. Russia is located on the road from Asia to Europe. Byzantium had perished as a result of similar invasions simply, and Austria had stood against the Ottoman Turk somehow. The answer of Russia consisted in the invention of new estate – the Cossacks, in use against nomads of firearms and a ships. The firearms were invented by Frenchmen and Englishmen during Centenary War, the ship or “dracar” is an invention of Vikings, thus, Russians invented nothing, and Russians used against Asians the European inventions successfully. Cossacks located on the rivers and Cossacks had made rivers as natural boundaries of defense, then Cossacks began to use a ships and a gun for advance to Siberia, thus, Cossacks had won the earth of nomads and Cossacks had crushed this ancient center of aggression against farmers of Europe and Asia. Example of a successful campaign of Cossacks is Ermak's campaign from settlement Stroganov's capital the Orel (Perm province) to Siberia.
    • If to develop Toynbee's ideas, that, in my opinion, it is possible to call challenges which led in answer to four Great English inventions:
    - Low labor productivity of serf workers caused necessity to invent instead of administrative stimuluses more effective economic stimuluses – a monetary prize and a monetary fine.
    - Deficiency of the goods, especially pepper and spices, became a callenge which resulted in need to invent ocean trade, the ocean ships (caravels) and the market competitions at which deficiency can't exist in principle. If the ships were primitive earlier, and it was possible to float only along the coast on old ship that it was possible to hide in any bay in case of a storm, it was possible to float straight across the ocean on a caravel.
    - The competition in side of the Indian weavers who were able to produce handwork fabrics at very low price and excellent quality, caused to invent mechanical weaving looms and the steam engine.
    - Abuses of tyrants caused to invent system of representative democracy which consists of the constitution, parliament, system of division of the authorities, multi-party elections and political freedoms.
    Some authors opposed formation’s and civilizational approaches at research of history of society unreasonably. Theoretical synthesis of these approaches is necessary. Who drives up mankind on steps of progressive formation’s development? Progress of society goes by trials and errors under the Toynbee's law of a challenge and answer. Local civilizations realize various projects of development, local civilizations fight with each other, as a result there is a natural selection of these civilizations and their answers with help of war and the competition in the international market. There is a change of civilizations – leaders on the world scene because of this fight of civilizations. War and the market is a lot always therefore any civilization can't win eternally according to the probability theory, good luck can turn away from earlier successful civilization once. Besides there is a degeneration of creative elite of this civilization over time, creative elite loses ability to do the invention. The local civilization is a sampling unit in human history, like a species in the biosphere. Thus, fight of local civilizations is reason of the formation’s development, fight of local civilizations is that whip which drives up mankind on steps of progressive formation’s development though certain people, the nations, the organizations, groups, the countries and civilizations develop cyclically through the birth, blossoming, decline and death.
    There are two ways of development of social structure - a peace reform and a social revolution.
    Possible consequence of revolution is emergence of civil war and a large quantity of victims. All reformers and revolutionaries say usually that they are supporters of progressive development or establishing order, but the result of reform or revolution can be both progress and regress of society. For example, October revolution of 1917 led to regress of social structure in Russia in practice, but Yeltsin's reforms are progressive.
    The sociology of revolution was created by Pitirim Sorokin. Lenin considered that revolution is good, revolution is a holiday for oppressed men which can revenge with impunity for sanctions and plunder yesterday's controllers. Revolution is an only way for such revolutionaries as Marx, Engels and Lenin to receive the power without elections, without asking will of the people as communists lost on honest elections always. Marx called revolutions «history locomotives».
    Sorokin and Gobbes considered that revolutio is very bad. I agree with this point of view. Sorokin considered that revolution is a serious social illness which can lead to death of a social organism suddenly that revolution is the worst way of improvement of life of masses. Revolutionaries promise to masses «mountains of gold» in words, masses receive hunger, epidemics and executions of innocent people in practice. Insignificant results of revolution are reached by the huge price.
    Sorokin calls two reasons of revolution:
    • Infringement of base instincts at the majority of the population.
    • Disorganization of the power and social control.
    Types of the infringed instincts, as the first reason of revolution:
    • Hunger.
    • The impoverishment. Soldiers of revolutionary army is beggars and slaves always. Marshals of revolutionary army are losers from elite at which legal career didn't turn out for the various reasons and which are ready to walk to the power on corpses.
    • Unsuccessful war and state terror. War turns soldiers into raging crowds of mentally ill people. Despotic regimes are “pregnant" by revolution constantly.
    • Censorship and a ban on migration. For example the poet V. Mayakovsky glorified October revolution because of a censorial ban on his publications before revolution. There was a ban on migration of Jews from the western areas to the central Russia (boundary of settlement). Therefore many Jews became revolutionaries.
    • Estate’s restrictions. These restrictions prevented people to make legal career from bottoms of society.
    Disorganization of the power and social control means inability of the government to suppress a revolution, to eliminate the conditions displeasing of the population, to split masses into parts and to set them at each other by a principle «divide and dominate», to send an energy output of masses to other not revolutionary course by a principle «to open the valve that the copper didn't XXXX up». The atmosphere of prerevolutionary eras surprises by observer with powerlessness of the authorities and degeneration of ruling privileged classes always. The history "suffers" the cruel and injurious governments, that time while they are able to operate by country, but history pronounces a severe verdict to the powerless and parasitic governments.
    When there is a revolutionary explosion, that the ruthless revolutionary sweeper puts out absolutely all social garbage – degenerates from elite. At the same time "upstarts" from bottoms rush up on a social ladder sharply through a huge crack in a social sieve of selection. Such sieve exists on each floor of a social ladder. But the new elite erects at the second stage of revolution new "sieve" under which protection the upstarts who have reached tops, merge with the remains of not gone wrong aristocracy which new elite leave for transfer of experience of management people. New Bolshevist "sieve" passed upward only those who «from the machine tool» or «from a plough» and New Bolshevist "sieve" rejected down all the others.
    It is possible to draw a conclusion that revolution is favorable to bandits and usurpers of the power, and revolution isn't favorable to all other social groups. A merit of president Yeltsin was not only that Yeltsin carried out reforms necessary for the country, but also that Yeltsin crushed two attempts of communists to seize power with help of army and KGB mutiny in 1991 and with help of the organization of mass riots and the armed capture of the power in 1993.
    It is possible to explain success of Bolsheviks in 1917 also to that there was a difficult process of change of elite in Russia, as well as in other advanced countries. The power passed from hands of noblemen to hands of businessmen gradually, and the power was intercepted at this turning point suddenly by rascals, like racketeer Stalin and Lenin who lived many years in Paris on the stolen money and money of German investigation.
    The reasons generating the second stage of revolution are strengthening of hunger, crime, requisitions, epidemics, primitive chaos «wars of all against all» are. People stat before a dilemma: or to be lost, continuing revolutionary uproar, or to put things in order at any cost. Examples «creators of an order is Caesar, Octavian Augustus, Cromwell, Napoleon, Robespierre, Lenin and Putin who were able to put things in order «an iron fist» after the period of revolution or reforms. There is a mad energy output at the first stage, but the person is not the perpetual motion machine therefore mass apathy and weariness comes sooner or later. Society which isn't capable to develop by peace reforms is compelled to pay for revolution a tribute at a rate of a considerable part of the population. It is possible to draw a conclusion that peace reform is much better, than a social revolution.
    How many and forms of government existed in the history of mankind? What forms of government existed in the history of mankind? To answer this controversial question, it is necessary to choose correctly criteria which distinguish one form of government from another. Aristotle called six forms of government:
    • Tyranny.
    • Oligarchy.
    • Ochlocracy.
    • Kingdom.
    • Aristocracy.
    • Democracy.
    There are only two forms of government in classification of Machiavelli:
    • Republic.
    • Monarchy.
    In my opinion, it is possible to make classification of five forms of government:
    • A TYRANNY or a KINGDOM are constructed on such type of the conflict, as the armed capture of the power and civil war.
    • An ARISTOCRACY or A OLIGARCHY are constructed on elections in privileged meeting.
    • A DIRECT DEMOCRACY is constructed on elections in people's assembly.
    • A HEREDITARY MONARCHY is constructed on transfer of a throne by inheritance almost without fight, it is constructed on palace revolutions.
    • A REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACY is constructed on national multi-party elections.
    The representative democracy is the best from five forms of government. But building of representative democracy is the most complex problem. Society rolls down to the archaic forms of government – tyrannies or oligarchies in case of failure of similar building of representative democracy, as it had happened in 1917 in Russia under Bolsheviks. The ochlocracy and tyranny are worst of five forms government, and an ochlocracy are worse than tyranny even. The tyranny was invented in the countries of the Ancient East, the aristocracy was invented by Lycurgus in Sparta, direct democracy was invented in Athens, hereditary monarchy was invented in the form of custom about throne transfer to the eldest son or the big brother was invented in the Moscow principality, representative democracy was invented in England and the USA. Direct democracy was invented in primitive society, oligarchy and tyranny was invented in a slaveholding society, hereditary monarchy was invented at feudalism, representative democracy was invented under capitalism.
    Russia is a unique country where the power tried to enter all five forms of government in turn during 20 century. hereditary monarchy was before 1905 under emperor Nicolay 2 in Russia. Russians tried to construct representative democracy from 1905 to February 1917, Russian parliament, a multi-party system was for this purpose created, political freedoms and free elections are guaranteed, but the constitution wasn't adopted, and the right of appointment of members of the government remained in hands of the emperor, instead of parliament. The diarchy of Provisional government and the Soviet power was established from March to November 1917. an election in the Constituent assembly was held, this Constituent assembly should choose the form of government. Bolsheviks seized power in October 1917, and Lenin had constructed oligarchy where «the Lenin guard» became an privileged layer instead of the nobility, opponents of Bolshevist oligarchy were destroyed physically during Civil war and with help of KGB terror. Bolsheviks had destroyed an ochlocracy of father Makhno in Ukraine. Stalin had constructed tyranny in the thirties 0f 20 century, thus there was again a change of elite – replacement of «Lenin guard» on the nomenclature at power top. Khrushchev had restored oligarchy, having eliminated Beria, as new applicant in tyrants. Gorbachev's merit consists that it loosened oligarchy to the basis. Yeltsin destroyed oligarchy and established representative democracy. Putin destroyed an ochlocracy and the center of civil war in Chechnya, and then Putin put things in order after Yeltsin's reforms.
    The USA and Britain as leaders of world development in the 20th century, pursued policy of overthrow of the tyrannical and oligarchical governments and building of representative democracy worldwide. Overthrow of tyranny of Saddam Hussein in Iraq is the last example of such progressive policy.

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