Problem of classification of the forms of government.

How many and what forms of government did exist in the history of mankind? To answer this controversial question, it is necessary to choose correctly criteria which distinguish one form of government from another. The comparative analysis of the forms of government is a condition for their successful classification. The form of government is a type of the device of the Supreme power in the country. There were some attempts to make similar classification in history of philosophy.

Aristotle's classification.

This classification is stated in Aristotle's book of "Policy". This classification is borrowed by Aristotle Plato entirely, but Aristotle managed to state this classification in more systematic form.
Aristotle called six forms of government (a kingdom, tyranny, the aristocracy, oligarchy, an okhlocracy, democracy) which are allocated according to two criteria:
• Number of ruling persons (one, minority, majority).
• Assessment of the forms of government (bad or good).
The kingdom is a good form of government when one good person governs. Examples of outstanding tsars: Kodr, Cyrus, Alexander the Great, Napoleon.
The tyranny is a bad form of government when one bad person governs. In my opinion, Stalin and Hitler serve as examples of tyrants. Tyrant Periandr considered that it is necessary to tear off ears rising over others – to execute all outstanding people. The well-known words possesses by Aristotle: "It is better to kill the tyrant than to kill thief". These words became the slogan of all killers by tyrants like Sofia Perovskaja and members of group «People will» in Russia who killed Russian tsar Alexander 2 though Alexander 2 was a reformer, instead of the tyrant.
The aristocracy is a good form of government when good exclusive minority rules.
The oligarchy is a bad form of government when bad exclusive minority rules.
Democracy is a good form of government when the good majority of the population rules.
Okhlocracy is a bad form of government when the bad majority of the population (criminal crowd) rules when the simple people become similar to the despot. Demagogues are able to flatter for crowd and to turn the mercenary offers into laws. Demagogues erect charges against officials often, and the people accept this charges willingly so value of all officials comes to naught. And anarchy comes at inaction of officials.
Conclusion: According to Aristotle, the aristocracy is the best form of government. In my opinion, this conclusion was absolutely correct only for an antiquity when representative democracy wasn't invented yet. There was a regress in 20 century in a number of the countries to the ancient forms of government – to oligarchy or tyranny – in the form of a fascist regime, the Soviet power, the fundamentalist and Islamic state. The main lack of classification of Aristotle consists that this classification is a little obsolete since the new forms of government were invented after Aristotle.
Classification of Machiavelli.
There are only two forms of government in classification of Machiavelli:
• REPUBLIC
• MONARCHY

My point of view concerning classification of the forms of government.
In my opinion, it is possible to make classification of five forms of government:
• TYRANNY or KINGDOM.
• ARISTOCRACY or OLIGARCHY.
• DIRECT DEMOCRACY or OKHLOCRACY.
• HEREDITARY MONARCHY.
• REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACY.
This classification is made on the basis of four criteria:
• quantity of governors or voters,
• kinds of ways of conflict for power,
• kinds of fighting groups and a place or the arena of their fight,
• kinds of defects or shortcomings of each form of government.
Most important is the second criterion from these four criteria since kinds of the social conflict and kinds of social control are the main basis for construction of social structures.
The quantity of governors is equal to one tyrant or the tsar under tyranny or a kingdom. The quantity of governors is equal to privileged minority under the aristocracy or oligarchy. The quantity of governors is equal to the majority of citizens under direct democracy or an okhlocracy. The quantity of governors is equal to dynastic family under hereditary monarchy. All citizens have a right to elect and be the electee in the conditions of representative democracy. Ways of conflict for power are the armed capture of the power or civil war for a throne under tyranny and a kingdom.
Way of conflict for power is elections in privileged meeting under the aristocracy and oligarchy. Way of conflict for power is elections in people's assembly under direct democracy okhlocracy. Way of conflict for power is throne transfer by inheritance without fight or palace coups with help of quads at hereditary monarchy. Way of conflict for power is national elections in the conditions of representative democracy.
Kinds of fighting groups are groups of rebels in armies or bureaucratic cliques under tyranny and a kingdom. Kinds of fighting groups are fractions in the senate, the Politburo or Central Committee of CPSU under the aristocracy and oligarchy. Kinds of fighting groups are crowds led by demagogues under direct democracy or an okhlocracy. Kinds of fighting groups are groups of guardsmen led by representatives of a ruling dynasty or impostors under hereditary monarchy. Kinds of fighting groups are parliamentary parties or fractions in parliament in the conditions of representative democracy.
Kinds of defects are an arbitrariness and abuses of tyrants and harm from civil wars for a kingdom or tyranny. Kinds of defects are a degeneration of oligarchy and revolt of the majority deprived of civil rights for the aristocracy or oligarchy. Kinds of defects are abuses of demagogues and impossibility to construct this form of government in the big territory for direct democracy or an okhlocracy. Kinds of defects are a degeneration of a ruling dynasty and absence of election of governors for hereditary monarchy. Representative democracy has no defects, but representative democracy has small shortcomings – too many governors and deputies and they make the decision too long.
Conclusion: Representative democracy is the best from five forms of government. But creation of representative democracy is the most complex problem. To overcome these small shortcomings, Parliament give to the President emergency powers for limited term in case of emergence conditions –in case of wars, natural disaster or mass riots. Society rolls down to the archaic forms of government – tyrannies or oligarchies in case of failure of similar construction of representative democracy, as it happened in 1917 in Russia under Bolsheviks. Worst of five forms of government are the okhlocracy and tyranny, and an okhlocracy is worse than tyranny even. An example of okhlocracy are meetings of criminals or crowd of villains which are ready to smash and kill always. The tyranny was invented in the countries of the Ancient East. Aristocracy was invented by Lycurgus in Sparta. Direct democracy was invented in Athens. Hereditary monarchy was invented in the Moscow Principality in the form of custom about a succession, about throne transfer to the eldest son or the big brother. Representative democracy was invented in England and the USA.

What forms of government did exist in Russia in the 20th century?

Russia is a unique country where of the power tried to enter all five forms of government in turn during 20 century. Hereditary monarchy was under Russian emperor Nicolay 2 in Russia before 1905. Russian tried to construct representative democracy from 1905 to February 1917, Russian parliament and a multi-party system was created for this purpose, political freedoms and free elections are guaranteed, but the constitution wasn't adopted, and the right of appointment of members of the government remained in hands of the emperor, instead of parliament. The diarchy of Provisional government and the Soviet power was established from March to November 1917. an election in the Constituent assembly was held. This Constituent assembly should choose the form of government. But Bolsheviks seized power in October 1917, Bolsheviks disperse by Constituent assembly, Conclusion: Representative democracy is the best from five forms of government. But creation of representative democracy is the most complex problem. To overcome these small shortcomings, Parliament give to the President emergency powers for limited term in case of emergence conditions –in case of wars, natural disaster or mass riots. Society rolls down to the archaic forms of government – tyrannies or oligarchies in case of failure of similar construction of representative democracy, as it happened in 1917 in Russia under Bolsheviks. Worst of five forms of government are the okhlocracy and tyranny, and an okhlocracy is worse then tyranny even. An example of an okhlocracy are meetings of criminals or crowd of villains which are ready to smash and kill always. The tyranny was invented in the countries of the Ancient East. Aristocracy was invented by Lycurgus in Sparta. Direct democracy was invented in Athens. Hereditary monarchy was invented in the Moscow Principality in the form of custom about a succession, about throne transfer to the eldest son or the big brother. Representative democracy was invented in England and the USA.